Nietzsche – The Eternal Recurrence

In Nietzsche’s book Thus Spoke Zarathustra, there are three major teachings Zarathustra has to offer: the Will to Power, the conception of the Eternal Recurrence and the advocacy of the Overman.

In this post we will explore the meaning behind his second teaching, the Eternal Recurrence.

Nietzsche proposed finding a new set of values in this life, loving life and not just accepting the good, but also accepting that there is evil, suffering, pain, and annihilation. And that the best afterlife we can experience is none other than another repetition of the life we just experienced.

This is what is known as the Eternal Recurrence, the ideal of the most high-spirited and world-affirming individual, who has learned not just to accept and go along with what was and what is, but who wants it again just as it was life after life.


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Nietzsche’s main concepts on living life revolve around self-overcoming, amor fati, perspectivism, human nobility, the will to power, the eternal recurrence, and the overman.

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Nietzsche – The Will to Power

In Nietzsche’s book Thus Spoke Zarathustra, there are three major teachings Zarathustra has to offer: the Will to Power, the conception of the Eternal Recurrence and the advocacy of the Overman.

In this post we will explore the meaning behind the will to power.

Nietzsche entertains the idea that the will to power is an integral part of reality, if we look at organic life, we find that we live in a dynamic and chaotic process of creation and decay, of overpowering and becoming overpowered. This will to power is ultimately decisive for life to develop itself and to survive, or as Nietzsche puts it: for its potential to become what it is.

The will to power is the true way, not the Schopenhauer approach of the will to survival or the will to knowledge. We need knowledge for a purpose, to live it, not to have it, but to experience it. The will to power is ingrained in our deepest self, where the smallest of actions have a will to do something, it is always present – it might be potentially discoverable or paralysed, but there is always a will to power – which we should strive for.

“If we succeed in explaining our entire life of drives to one basic form of will, it would be this will to power and nothing else.”

However, the most important concept of the will to power, and the one Nietzsche was most likely to emphasise, is that the will to power is becoming who you truly are. It is pure self-expression and self-overcoming, without being enslaved by things. In essence, it is the main drive force in humans.


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Nietzsche’s Three Stages of Life

In Nietzsche’s book Thus Spoke Zarathustra, he presents three stages in life for self-overcoming: the camel, the lion, and the child.

1. The Camel

To Nietzsche, all of us are born camels, and most of us are going to die camels. Most people who interact with the world bear the burdens of others.  A camel carries heavy stuff and it doesn’t complain, it keeps on ahead.

What sorts of burdens are tied to our backs? Nietzsche would say everything you’ve ever been told to do by somebody else, you’ve been getting weight after weight tied to your back, with people telling you all the stuff that you should do. To be free, we must get rid of these weights, to act as we truly are and say no to tradition.

Once you have unburdened yourself, you undergo a new transformation, you become the lion.

2. The Lion

For Nietzsche, the main struggle here is the existing lord, a dragon called “thou shalt”, which is the great barrier to true freedom. It sparkles with golden scales and on each scale is written a “thou shalt”, representing thousands of years of tradition. To conquer the dragon, one must build self-mastery and muster the courage to mutter the “sacred No”, asserting one’s independence outside external influences.

The final stage is the child.

3. The Child

Nietzsche states that:

“The child is innocence and forgetfulness, a new beginning, a game, a self-propelling wheel, a first motion, a sacred Yes.”

He  believed that the truly free spirit will resemble a child at play, who discovers the world for the first time, who is curious and filled with wonder. The child is not weighed down by rules and values, the child discovers for themselves the meaning in things. Having uttered the “sacred No” to reject everything that came before, the child shouts the “sacred Yes” that affirms life.


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Nietzsche – God Is Dead & Critique of Christianity

Perhaps one of Nietzsche’s most famous statements is his proclamation of the death of god:

“God is dead. God remains dead. And we have killed him. How shall we comfort ourselves, the murderers of all murderers? What was holiest and mightiest of all that the world has yet owned has bled to death under our knives: who will wipe this blood off us? What water is there for us to clean ourselves? What festivals of atonement, what sacred games shall we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this deed too great for us? Must we ourselves not become gods simply to appear worthy of it?”

As you might tell, it doesn’t sound very much like a celebratory statement. Although Nietzsche was concerned on ending all the values that have been compiled for millennia from all kinds of civilizations and that are rooted within society, he did believe it to be necessary and possible.

He calls this process of transcending our existing values as a Revaluation of All Values. Proposing that a revaluation of values that runs deeply enough can eventually lead the entire human race into a new pattern of life beyond the human, a figure which he calls the Übermensch or Overman.

By proclaiming the death of god, Nietzsche looked upon a historical event where god, who played a central role in most people’s lives for many centuries has now become one of many facets of some people’s lives. There are still believers and churches, but god no longer defines the role of our world, it is for this reason that god is dead.

Church stained glass

Nietzsche states Christianity to be fundamentally rooted in a “slave morality” and he criticises the masses, for this suicide of reason, this worm-like reason.

The slave morality resents the virtues of the powerful. However, Nietzsche perceives evil as something powerful and dangerous, it is felt to contain a certain awesome quality, a subtlety and strength that block any incipient contempt. According to the slave morality then, “evil” inspires fear; but according to the “master morality”, it is “good” that wants to inspire fear.

The sacrifice of all freedom, pride and self confidence in the spirit leads to enslavement.  The master morality does not intend to oppress others, but rather create new values and ways of life. A slave morality sees virtue from refraining to exercise one’s power and sees evil in doing so.

He argues that Christianity is derived from subservience, obedience and being a member of a flock. It is a way of hating life and wanting to escape life into a heavenly and eternal afterlife.

Christianity

However, the less our reality is dumbed down, sweetened up and veiled over, the closer to the “truth” we are.

For as long as there have been people, there have been a very large number of people who obey compared to relatively few who command. Considering that humanity has been a breeding ground for the cultivation of obedience, the average person has a need to obey, a “thou shalt”.

A herd instinct of obedience, taken to extremes, will signify that in the end, there will be nobody with independence or the ability to command.  A high, independent spiritedness, a will to stand alone, even an excellent faculty of reason, will be perceived as a threat. Everything that raises the individual over the herd and frightens the neighbour will henceforth be called evil.

Herd

Thus, Nietzsche sees Christianity as something inferior to man, something to grow out of, away from and above. It is the deterioration of the human race. To twist every instinct of the highest type of man into uncertainty, self-destruction and invert the whole love of the earth into hatred against the earthly. The most disastrous form of arrogance, who have given way to a herd animal, a mediocre breed.


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Nietzsche on Human Nobility

Nietzsche speaks of the idea of vornehmheit or human nobility. That it is not within knowledge per se. Knowledge is not something one can have like a detached thing that one possesses, but rather the knowing subject has to live his knowledge, it becomes associated to how much truth one can endure.

The nobility in human beings resides in putting oneself at a distance from people and things: to have a sense of differences in rank between people and strive for higher distinction.

He speaks of “the pathos of distance”, which refers to a differentiation between the ordinary and the noble types of man, a chasm separating the great from the mediocre. Nietzsche is concerned with issues of not just individual decadence, but also of cultural decadence. He is concerned with life-affirming great individuals, not merely for their own sake, but for the rejuvenation and flourishing of culture.

However, Nietzsche does not intend to elevate all of humanity. His intent is to elevate those who can be elevated. He is fine with the herd staying the herd, but he wishes to seduce people away from the herd and expects the herd to hate him.

The Herd

What most interested Nietzsche throughout his entire intellectual career can be summarised in the form of the question “how are we to live?”, or more poignantly “how are we to endure life?”

He conceives life as a chaotic process without any stability or direction. And that we have no reason to believe in such a thing as value of life, insofar as these terms imply the idea of an objective purpose of life.

Human life is value oriented in its very essence, without adherence to some set of values or other, human life would be virtually impossible. So, if there are no values out there and we cannot live without values, then there must be some value-creating capacity within ourselves which is responsible for the values we cherish, and which organise our lives.

The noble and brave types creates values. He honours everything he sees in himself: this sort of morality is self-glorifying. A faith in yourself, a pride in yourself and a fundamental hostility and irony with respect to selflessness belong to a noble morality.

Nietzsche stated that the modern man would have to create his own values and morals in a world void of religion and belief, while avoiding the risk of falling into nihilism, the belief that life is meaningless, devoid of any value structure.


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Nietzsche on Perspectivism

Nietzsche’s doctrine of perspectivism claims that our view of the world and the statements we take to be true, depend on our perspective of the world. Thus, it gives rise to the epistemological thesis that our knowledge claims can never be true in an absolute or objective sense.

Perspectivism lays the foundations of Nietzsche’s thought, philosophy is subjective, and no philosophy is ultimate – but helps as a base to allow others to see the world differently.

He speaks of a new breed of philosophers approaching, of “free spirits¨. These are not ones who want to establish their truth as a truth for everyone (the secret wish of all dogmatic aspirations), they are outlaws, who are not in agreement with the majority, and whose judgements are their judgements alone. Inevitably they will be presented with bolted doors and shut windows, but for Nietzsche, these are free, very free spirits.

“Greatest of all is the one who can be the most solitary, the most hidden, the most different, the person beyond good and evil, the master of his virtues, the one with an abundance of will. Only this should be called greatness: the ability to be just as multiple as whole, just as wide as full.”


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Nietzsche on Self-Overcoming

Friedrich Nietzsche was a German philosopher of the 19th century, one of the most revolutionary thinkers in Western philosophy and intellectual history. He was a cultural critic of his era, of traditional European morality and religious fundamentalism, especially of Christianity.

Nietzsche heavily emphasised the concept of selbstüberwindung or self-overcoming. By this, he means the act of expressing strong emotions or using energy by doing an activity or creating something.

Self-overcoming

We must face reality, and suffering is part of life. It is not to be eliminated, it is to be overcome, leading to growth. We make everything around us so easy, superficial, and bright, unable to face reality. Is this truly freedom? For Nietzsche, this is a simplified and falsified world. So, to delight in life itself, we must confront it at face value – everything evil, terrible, and snakelike in humanity serves just as well as its opposite to enhance the species “humanity”. We are to be grateful for even difficulties.

It is clear that pain is an inevitable part of human existence. From birth till death – there is a 100% chance that we will suffer significantly painful experiences. But people run from the pain, they spend their life trying to be comfortable. Instead of running from it, Nietzsche would want us to face the hardship, as it is the only way we grow as people.

“What does not kill me, makes me stronger.”

Imagine climbing up a mountain. There is struggle, pain, and hardship along the way. But it’s only from the top of the mountain that you can see the most beautiful views life has to offer. And it is only the people that have the courage to climb that mountain, that will ever get to see that view.

Mountain view

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Book Review: Notes from the Underground – Fyodor Dostoevsky

“Which is better: cheap happiness or sublime suffering? Well, come on, which is better?”


Notes from the Underground published in 1864 is considered to be one of the first works of existentialist literature. In this work Dostoevsky attempts to justify the existence of individual freedom as a necessary part of humankind. It presents the story of a bitter and isolated retired civil servant known as the Underground Man, who has been living “underground” or in his own reflective hyper consciousness for 40 years and has written these Notes from the Underground.

Rating

Rating: 5 out of 5.

The Underground Man is the quintessential anti-hero, the nastiest, stupidest, absurdest and most envious worm on earth, who does not even compare himself to an insect, which is worth more than him. He feels acutely envious of the ordinary man “the man of action”, who possesses little intellectual capacity and who is free all the from doubts, questions and resentments that are part of his subterranean consciousness.

Underground Man

But on the other hand, he finds solace in his sense of intellectual superiority. This differentiation is similar to Nietzsche’s differentiation of the slave morality (people who feel morally superior because they don’t do what they want) and the master morality (people who do want they want).

Throughout the novella the Underground Man is constantly thinking about his superiority or inferiority with respect to the people around him. It becomes clear that he is living in a kind of hell constructed of his own internal ruminations, especially how he stands hierarchically with respect to other people.

He goes against everything that society stands for. We seem to search for happiness, rationality and what is advantageous to us, why is there then so much suffering, pain and misery? We want happiness but we have a special talent for making ourselves miserable.

“Man is sometimes extraordinarily, passionately in love with suffering: that is a fact.”

What if we could find a secret formula for all our desires with all human actions being tabulated according to these laws mathematically? Life would be dull because of its extraordinary rationality. And boredom will eventually lead man to do without this ultra-rationalism, preferring to act as he chose and not in the least as his reason and advantage is dictated, man wants to be independent.

Man does not want what is disadvantageous to him, but man desires freedom more than happiness, the ability to do what one desires, even when it does one harm. And there is no guarantee that humans will use freedom in a constructive way. The evidence of history suggests that humans seek the destruction of others and of themselves. One may say anything about the history of the world, the only thing one can’t say is that it is rational.

“Shower upon him (man) every earthly blessing, drown him in a sea of happiness, so that nothing but bubbles of bliss can be seen on the surface, give him economic prosperity such that he should have nothing else to do but sleep, eat cakes and busy himself with the continuation of his species, and even out of sheer ingratitude, sheer spite, man would play you some nasty trick.”

Men still are men, and not the keys of a piano (or a kind of robot). Man is not reasonable, he is human all to human. And even if he were to be reasonable, he would get out of his way to do something perverse, he would be begging to be under control once again.

Man likes to make roads and to create, but he also has a passionate love for destruction and chaos. Perhaps man only loves that edifice from a distance, and is by no means in love with it at close quarters, perhaps he only loves building it and does not want to live in it. In other words, he loves the journey, but not the end.

Notes from the Underground launches an attack on all ideologies of social progress which aspire to the elimination of suffering, solving one problem and directing our nature to become unhappy in other ways. Ideologies that seek to improve the world always contain a flaw, they won’t eradicate suffering, but rather change the things that will cause pain. Thus, life can only be a process of changing the focus of pain and there will always be something to agonise us.

Suffering is part of the human condition, and we would be much happier embracing reality as a whole.

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Book Review: Crime and Punishment – Fyodor Dostoevsky

Crime and Punishment remains the single most widely known Russian novel as well as one of the greatest works in world literature. It is first and foremost a fascinating detective novel, but one in which we know from the very beginning who committed the heinous crime.

Rating

Rating: 5 out of 5.

It focuses on the mental anguish and moral dilemmas of Raskolnikov, an impoverished law student in St. Petersburg unable to pay for his studies. He can be viewed as a materialistic rationalist, an oddity at that time and taken by the idea that God was dead. He was convinced that the only reason that anyone acted in a moral way was because of cowardice and tradition.

Raskolnikov

Dostoevsky wanted to set up a character who had every reason to commit murder: philosophically, practically, and ethically.

It starts of early with Raskolnikov formulating a plan to kill an evil and wealthy person after eavesdropping on a conversation in which a student claimed that the world would be better off if that person were dead and the money were given to someone who needed it more.

It is a book disguised as a murder mystery that delves deeply into the psychology and the mind of what a “murder” can be. The character development is fantastic. What fascinated me about Dostoevsky is his ability to make the opposite of his beliefs, the antithesis of what he believed, the strongest views possible – often making his characters the strongest, most handsome, smartest and most admirable people in his books, which takes great moral courage. Raskolnikov as a dissident and atheist nihilist, Razumikhin as the reasonable friend, Sonya as the wise one, and so on.

The book is focused on Raskolnikov’s moral dilemma between good and evil, he distinguishes between ordinary and extraordinary people (such as Napoleon). Raskolnikov’s pride separates him from society, he sees himself as a sort of “higher man”, a person who is extraordinary and thus above all moral rules that govern the rest of humanity, and so he cannot relate to anyone of the ordinary people, who must live in obedience and do not have the right to overstep the law.

After the murder, his isolation increases. The novel deeply explores the psychology of the inner world of Raskolnikov. Dostoevsky seems to suggest that actual imprisonment and punishment is much better than the stress and anxiety of trying to avoid punishment. One must eventually confess or go mad.

Dostoevsky portrays Raskolnikov as a nihilist, gloomy and with a feeling of deep emptiness, for the most part of the novel. He is a utilitarian who believes that moral decisions should be based on the rule of the greatest happiness for the largest number of people, thus justifying, in his mind, the murder.

“In general, an unusually small number of people are born with a new idea, or who are capable of even uttering something new…”

“…and great geniuses, the culmination of humanity – perhaps only as a result of the passing of many billions of people across the earth.”

Thus, he considers himself one of them, and in view of unfortunate worldly circumstances and the advancement of mankind in some way, he steps over the obstacles of murder and robbery.

However, things did not go as planned. After the carefully planned murder, he finds himself confused, paranoid and with disgust for what he has done. He enters periods of delirium in which he struggles with guilt and horror and has a series of disturbing dreams. In a way, along with the murder, he had also killed a part of himself. Add to that his atheism in a highly religious era and his nihilism.

In 19th century Russia nihilism became prevalent, espousing for the end of belief in religion and God and for it to be replaced by something new. At this time German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche famously wrote that God is Dead, not a celebratory but a tragic statement. However, he believed that men could do without religion and create new values, rising up to the figure of the Übermensch or Overman. Thus, man becomes God.

Dostoevsky (left) and Nietzsche (right)

Dostoevsky saw this new atheist movement as incredibly dangerous; it laid the seeds for the character of Raskolnikov, with his own superman beliefs. Nietzsche read and admired Dostoevsky, he called him “the only psychologist from whom he had something to learn”, and that he “ranks amongst the most beautiful strokes of fortune in his life.”

Both Nietzsche and Dostoevsky had strikingly similar themes. Both are haunted by central questions surrounding the human existence, especially ones concerning God.

Can Raskolnikov endure to be extraordinary? How does he cope with life? Why should he go on living? What would he have to look forward to? To go on living merely to exist? Or is existence itself to little for him? Perhaps he wants something more than to merely exist among the ordinary people.

You’ll have to find out!

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Jungian Archetypes Explained In Simple Terms

Introduction Carl Jung

Carl Jung

Few people have had as much influence on modern psychology as Carl Jung, he has coined terms such as extraversion and introversion, archetypes, anima and animus, shadow, and collective unconscious, among others.

He was a practicing psychiatrist and is regarded as the founder of analytical psychology or Jungian analysis. In his early years, he came into contact with Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. They had a close relation and collaborated on a joint vision of human psychology. However, they parted ways as Jung’s personal research on analytical psychology and especially upon the discovery of a collective unconscious, made it impossible for him to follow Freud’s psychoanalysis, this resulted in a painful schism after years of collaboration.

Freud and Jung

Jung’s analytical psychology essentially gave birth to the empirical science of the psyche, which culminated in his magnum opus the “Collected Works”, written over a period of 60 years during his lifetime.

Jung distinguishes our psyche into three different realms: consciousness, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious.

Consciousness is composed of our field of awareness, all the experiences that we are aware of, this is where we form our Ego. However, according to Jung it is dwarfed in relation to the unconscious.

The personal unconscious is particular to each individual and is made of parts that are unique to our own lives, thoughts we are not aware of, have forgotten or have been repressed due to their disturbing nature.

On the other hand, the collective unconscious is the deepest part of our unconscious which is genetically inherited and not shaped by personal experience. This is where the archetypes are found. Archetypes represent universal patterns and images that are part of the collective unconscious. Jung believed that we inherit these archetypes just as we inherit instinctive patterns of behaviour.

Jung was also an expert on the study of religious and mythological symbology, the work in both of these fields lead to the discovery of the archetypes. The study of these myths of cultures revealed similar patterns, he even found the same symbols in the dreams of patients suffering from schizophrenia, which reinforced the idea of archetypes and the collective unconscious.

Apart from his travels in the United States and England, Jung had travelled to East Africa to learn about natives who had never been in contact with European culture, he also travelled to India where he felt himself “under the direct influence of a foreign culture” for the first time. Hinduism played an important element in his understanding of the role of symbolism and the unconscious.

Although Jung suggested a series of archetypes such as: the father (authority figure), the mother (nurturing), the wise old man (wisdom, knowledge), the hero (champion, rescuer), the trickster (troublemaker), among others. We will be focusing on what are regarded as the 4 major Jungian Archetypes: The Self, the Persona, The Shadow, and the Anima/Animus

1. The Self

The Self

To understand the Self, we need to know how it differs from the Ego, which is part of the realm of consciousness.

Jung considers the Self to be superior in rank to the ego. The ego is acquired during an individual’s lifetime and therefore it is a conscious factor. In theory, you could describe the ego completely, but this would only amount to the conscious personality, and not the total picture which would have to include the unconscious parts.

The ego is composed of the somatic and the psychic factors. The somatic is the physical self, our body, while the psychic relates to our inner self, our mind. Both the somatic and the psychic have conscious and unconscious factors.

The Ego’s main characteristic is our individuality, that is part of our consciousness; however, it is one part of the personality not the whole of it. The remaining part is composed of the unconscious.

The sum of the conscious and unconscious is what Jung calls the Self, which makes up the total personality of an individual.

To achieve the Self, Jung’s central concept revolved around what he called individuation or self-realisation. A lifelong process of distinguishing the self out of each individual’s conscious and unconscious elements. This he believed to be the main goal of human psychological development.

Now we delve into what Jung considered the most important part of ourselves, the unconscious.

Here’s where we encounter the Persona, Shadow, Anima/Animus, which have the most disturbing influence on the Ego.

2. The Persona

The Persona

The Persona is known as the conformity archetype, it is an element of the personality which arises for reasons of adaptation or personal convenience. If you have certain “masks” you put on in various situations, that is a persona. In essence, it conceals our real self, presenting ourselves as someone different to who we really are

As we please other people with our persona, it leaves our negative traits that contradict our real selves, forming our Shadow.

3. The Shadow

The Shadow

Jung stated the shadow to be the unknown dark side of the personality. Whereas the contents of the personal unconscious are acquired during an individual’s lifetime, the contents of the collective unconscious are invariably archetypes that were present from the beginning.

Among the shadow, the anima, and the animus, the most accessible and easiest to experience is the shadow, since it can be retrieved from contents of the personal unconscious.

To be conscious of the shadow, there must be a considerable moral effort recognising the dark aspects of one’s personality as real and present.

While some traits of one’s own shadow can be recognised, some offer greater resistance to moral control and prove almost impossible to influence.

An individual who does not recognise his psychological projection, a defense mechanism in which the individual defends himself against unconscious impulses denying their existence in himself while attributing them to others, will eventually create an illusory environment whereby he changes the world into the replica of his own unknown face.

Psychological projection

The Shadow plays an important role in balancing the overall psyche. A weak adaptation of the shadow results in a low level of personality, whereby the individual behaves like a passive victim of his shadow, extremely worried with the opinions of others, a walking Persona.

People who do not look at their shadows directly, project them onto others – the qualities that we often cannot stand in others, we have in ourselves and wish not to see. But, to truly grow as a person, one must integrate their shadow and balance it with their Persona.

It is possible for man to recognise the relative evil of his nature, but it is rare for him to gaze into the face of absolute evil.

An encounter with your shadow may appear in dreams typically as a person of the same sex as you. It depends on the living experience of each individual, rather than being inherited in the collective unconscious.

The dissolution of the persona and understanding one’s own shadow is a central part of the process of individuation.

In terms of the story of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, “it must be Jekyll, the conscious personality, who integrates the shadow, and not the other way around. Otherwise you will become the slave of your autonomous shadow.

The integration of the shadow marks the first stage of the analytic process, without it a recognition of anima and animus is impossible. However, the acknowledge of the shadow must be a continuous process throughout one’s life.

4. Anima and Animus

Anima and Animus

Within the shadow, there exists two contrasexual figures: the anima and the animus.

In every man’s psyche, there is an unconscious feminine aspect called the anima, which is a personification of all feminine psychological tendencies, while in every woman’s psyche there’s an unconscious masculine aspect called the animus.

Unlike the shadow which represents the personal unconscious, through which its content can be made conscious, the anima and animus are much further away from consciousness and are seldom realised.

Man’s anima is characterised by the feminine Eros. It is passive like a child seeking the protecting and nourishing charmed circle of the mother. While woman’s animus corresponds to the paternal Logos, the principal of rationality.

When man is integrating the anima, it becomes the Eros, giving way to a more caring figure. When woman is integrating the animus, it becomes the Logos, giving woman a capacity for assertiveness, and deliberation.

The anima appears in dreams, visions and fantasies taking on a personified form. She is a spontaneous product of the unconscious, and not a substitute figure for the mother, present in every man.

There are thoughts, feelings and affects alive in us which we would never have believed possible. This seems like utter fantasy to anyone who has not yet experienced it by themselves, for a normal person “knows what he thinks”.

The recognition of the anima gives rises to a triad: the masculine subject, the feminine subject, and the transcendent anima. With a woman, it gives rise to the transcendent animus.

Summary Jungian Analytical Psychology

The continuous integration of the contents of the collective unconscious, making them part of the Self, through psychotherapy, introspection, and having the moral fortitude to change one’s own beliefs, can have a considerable influence on ourselves and give us a much more solid foundation in our psyche, helping us to overcome our daily struggles and become much more aware of who we truly are, and that there are elements in our psyche beyond our control.

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